Saturday, 24 March 2018

Types of Acne: Blackhead, Whitehead and Pimple

Welcome, all!!! By now, you know what are Acne myths and facts. Also Types of Acne: Blackheads, Whiteheads, and Pimples I discussed briefly on my last blog of Acne- Myths and Facts. Today, I will tell you the detailed description of Blackheads, Whiteheads, and Pimples. The types of acne are categorized into six different forms- Blackhead, Whitehead, Papules, Pustules, nodules, and cysts. Everyone seems to have flawless skin but some end up with those ugly blackheads or whiteheads or pimples, so let's understand the difference between them. 

Comedo is a widened hair follicle, it is also called as Pore. Comedo is usually filled with keratin skin debris and oil to block the follicle. This Comedones(plural form of Comedo) can develop into whiteheads or blackheads or papules or pustules. The most common spots for the breakout is face, chest, upper arm and back. Acne Vulgaris is the medical name for usual acne. Most likely, Acne in women is caused due to hormonal changes such as those occurs during menstrual cycle or pregnancy.
(Image used in the infographic sourced from Wikimedia, flicker, and canva)


Blackheads are formed when the pore or comedo is open which contains sebum inside the pore and get oxidizes with air this solidifies the sebum and when the air blends with melanin a skin pigment, a dark color pigmentation which forms blackheads. External Factors responsible for Blackheads are the use of Oil-based Cosmetics and moisturizer. Similarly, other external or environmental factors like pollutions, humidity, and grease in the working environment. Blackheads mostly appear on nose, chin, and forehead(the "T-Zone" of the face).


In Whitehead, comedo is clogged due to sebum or bacteria or dead skin cells or cosmetic comedogenic products and remains closed at the surface of the skin which traps the pus (bacterial infection or mainly dead form of white blood cells) and this portion is covered by thin layer of skin. Actually, whiteheads are like push notification that body is attempting to put out an infection. Certain life events and stages can increases sebum production in pores, leads to the more oil production by the skin, the more likely they are to clog and create whiteheads. Makeup products labeled as "noncomedogenic" is less likely to clog pores and prevent acne.

Papules and Pustules

Usually, pimples are always been confused as another name of acne, but that's not the case- they are actually forms of acne which includes inflammation and classifies into two with a minute difference between them- Papules and Pustules.

Papules are small, elevated, red or inflamed that don't have pus inside. Due to body's natural defense mechanism, blood flow increases to this location. They are usually painless unless they are pricked or scratched.

Pustules are the small skin round lesion. You will notice they are red in color with a yellowish or whitish center. Pustules are one of the types of acne which contain pus inside and are usually painless even though inflamed. 

They generally do not contain bacteria. While it may be tempting to pop a pustule, but I have to tell you one more time even though you heard it before; don't do it! You could end up with a permanent scar.

Nodules and Cyst

Nodules are tender, filled with blood initially then after pus, and feels solid in touch. Nodules are larger in size as compared to above forms. Nodules have the deeper root than papules or pustules. Nodules can remain under the surface of the skin for weeks or months and ultimately forms hard cyst-like structure.

Cystic acne is the most severe form of acne. Cystic acne is painful and deep bumps filled with pus. Cystic acne is large pus-filled lumps that look like boils. This acne carries the greatest risk of developing permanent scarring.

Cystic acne contains a bacterial infection which infects nearby follicles. This serious form of acne including nodular cyst needs to be evaluated by an immediate dermatologist and determine the best course of action for this type of acne.

Recommended posts: 
Acne: Myths and Facts
OTC drugs and their side effects

What medication is good for Acne? Is acne curable? What are treatments for Acne? Does Acne have a permanent solution or cure? Does OTC give the fruitful result for acne? What are the precautions for acne? Do facemasks really remove blackheads? What kind of supplements will offer the more bang for your buck, you ask? The answers to these questions will come up in my upcoming blog post, So stay tuned with Eureka Of Life.

I hope you enjoyed reading and it would be helpful to all.

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Thursday, 15 March 2018

Stephen Hawking Goes With Pi Day

Stephen Hawking was the born on 8th January 1942 (Exactly after 300 years from the death of a famous astronomer Galileo Galilei) in England. Stephen Hawking was famous English theoretical Physicist. Stephen Hawking was regarded as the most brilliant theoretical physicist in the history. Hawking is probably the most famous genius of the modern age. At every juncture of his Career and education, he has been phenomenal by his inventions and discoveries. He is also renowned for his famous written books.

Image source: visual hunt

Stephen Hawking was born in thinkers family. He completed his graduation from Oxford University. He moved to Cambridge for his PhD. He submitted his thesis of "Properties of Expanding Universe" In 1963, at the age of 21, Stephen Hawking was diagnosed with the ALS(Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)  a form of motor neuron disease. ALS is a disease which causes gradual deterioration of motor neurons. Hawking's disease which progressed than usual and due to which all muscles of his body slowly started to reduce it's mobility. He got bound to wheelchair and dependent for all his daily activity. He was expected not to live more than two years since there was no cure and treatment for ALS. But Hawking proved doctors wrong and survived more than half a century.

Hawking married on 14th July 1965 to Jane Wilde whom he met shortly just before the diagnosis of his motor neuron disease. The couple had three children and marriage broke down in 1991. Hawking moved on, after four years he got married to Elaine Mason, one of the nurses employed to give him round-the-clock care. The marriage lasted for 11 years, during which Cambridgeshire police investigated a series of alleged assaults on Hawking.

He received his doctorate degree in 1966. At the age of 37, Hawking became the  Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, arguably Britain's most distinguished chair, and a post formerly occupied by Isaac Newton, a father of Quantum mechanics.

Image source- Visual hunt

In late 1970, Hawking's realized that black hole can only increase in size and never decrease in size. But Hawking went further. After a lot of studies, in 1974, Hawking drew quantum theory to determine the black holes are not totally silent but emit radiation, that concept is been named as Hawking radiation.

In 1985, Hawking suffered from a terrible chest infection, doctors asked his wife to withdraw his life support. But his wife refused for that and Hawking at Addenbrooke Hospital underwent a lifesaving tracheotomy operation. This operation saved his life but destroyed his voice. Afterward, he used a device to transform his voice by the movement of his cheek muscles(only muscle of right cheek working well). Since 1997 he used speech synthesiser to communicate in a computerised voice with an American accent. Then Intel developed sophisticated software which allowed Hawkins to check his mails, surf the Internet and write his lectures. He published all his books with the help of his speech device.


Professor Stephen Hawking had thirteen honorary degrees. He was a fellow of Royal Society and a member of US National Academy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. He is the recipient of many awards, medals, and prizes, most notable awards are- 
  • CBE (Commander of Most Excellent Order of the British Empire) in 1982 
  • Companion of Honour (1989)
  • Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
  • Fundamental Physics Prize (2010)
  • Copley Medal (2006)
  • Wolf Foundation Prize (1988)

Below is the list of some of his famous accessible books -
  • A Brief History Of Time (1988)
  • Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1994)
  • The Nature Of Space And Time (1996)
  • The Universe in A Nutshell (2001)
  • The Future Of Spacetime (2002)
  • On the Shoulders of Giants (2002)
  • The Theory of Everything (2002)
  • God Created Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs that Changed History (2005)
  • The Grand Design (2010)
  • The Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of (2011)
  • The Origin of (Almost) Everything (2016)
But most famous book among all above "A Brief History Of Time" that rocketed Hawking to the stardom. Get this book from Amazon link here. Hawking spoke against the idea of God created the universe in his book "The Great Design". Buy this book from Amazon link here.

Hawking battled terribly his debilitating illness for 56 years until his death in 2018 at age 76.
Few of the best quotes by Stephen Hawking-

"We all are now connected to the universe just like neurons in the giant brain."

"Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change."

"God may exist, but the science can explain the universe without the need for a creator."

"I believe alien life is quite common in the universe, although intelligent life is less so. Some say has it has to appear on the planet."

"Work gives you meaning and purpose, and life is empty without it."

On 14th March, Stephen Hawking finally succumbed to the disease. His family stated, "He died peacefully". Coincidentally, 14th March 2018 is the 30th anniversary of Pi Day, which was created in 1988 organized by Physicist Larry Shaw. Shaw chose 14th march because 3.14 represents 𝜫 (Pi). Moreover, same day is the birthday of famous scientist Albert Einstein. So all this made Hawking's life a series of bizarre coincidences to the greatest Physicist.

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Sunday, 11 March 2018

Acne - Myths and Facts

When I was a teenager I had like the worst skin ever. I had big craters like pimples that on my cheeks,  which it was totally awful. I tried everything I could to get them to go away. Not only this, I use to get lots of advice, what I should do about it some are 'Wash your face frequently', 'Cut down your potato chips(my favourite timepass food)', 'Cut down on the chocolates', etc You will not believe that but I use to take this advice seriously and followed them. No positive results I have seen. So I knew a lot of acne myths out there and I have fallen the part for some of it. Basically, I tried every unsuccessful method to get rid of these acne problems. In this article, we will be clarifying the most common acne myths and corresponding facts about acne, which you must know for treating your acne successfully. So let's try to dispel some of this myths.

Myth: Tanning clears up acne

Fact: No it doesn't. Actual leading to this myth is when you have dark spots which the acne leaves behind then you stand out in the open sun, the whole skin gets dark, so the dark covers the dark. I recommend you to use sunscreen with at least SPF-15. Also make sure that if you have very acne prone skin, then use non-acnegenic or non-comedogenic sunscreen or zinc oxide based sunscreen.

Myth: French fries cause acne

Fact: You may have heard that eating too much greasy food can cause acne problem to you. Although it is important for your health to have a balanced diet, there is no scientific proof that eating greasy food directly can cause acne. An even recent study from American Academy of Dermatology as of 2007 has revealed that restricting greasy foods has not been beneficial for the people with acne. While you should probably keep consumption of french fries in moderation and greasy food have little or no effect on acne. Eating food high in oil doesn't mean that oil can make its way from your intestine, straight to your pores.

Myth: Popping a pimple can help clear it up

Fact: Many of teenagers has often told popping a zit can clear up your skin. But the fact is popping an acne can spread the infection to nearby skin and make matter worse. Don't touch your pimples with unwashed hands. Constant touching your acne can inflame your skin and can contribute to spreading of bacteria and aggravating acne condition.

Myth: Acne occurs due to the unhygienic issue

Fact: It's of the most common myths about acne perpetuated. If you keep your skin dirty or not removing makeup and it stays there overnight there then it can aggravate existing pimples. In fact, it has been medically proven that acne is not a hygiene issue. Not only this, frequent washing of the face and aggressively scrubbing your face can make acne breakout much worse.

Myth: Using same brand soap for years can cause acne

Fact: This another myth where some say using same brand soap for years can make your skin rough and probably prone to acne. Although acne may occur due to other specific reason blame goes to the soap which might be perfect for skin.

Myth: Toothpaste can heal a zit

Fact: Toothpaste can dry pimples out, but it's not made for your skin. So it can cause irritation and rashes. I will suggest if you have sensitive skin like mine don't go for this option ever.
Image source: Pixabay

Myth: Cleansing and exfoliation of the skin hard can rid off acne

Fact: Totally false. If you would be Harsher on your skin the more obnoxious it will be. Handle your skin of face with more gentle than any other thing. Exfoliation removes the build-up of dead skin cells on your skin. Compounds like sulfur, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid; reduces swelling, redness and absorbs excess oils. But over-exfoliating skin can cause more harm than good to your skin. So if you don't want further acne, make sure you can exfoliate only twice a week.

Myth: Acne problem happens only to the teens

Fact: This is probably the biggest acne myth. It's true that acne takes place due to hormonal fluctuations in the body. Though it's probably not much comfort for teens, it's still a myth that they are only ones to experience acne. In fact, Acne can happen at any age, even in the 30s, 40s, or 50s.

Myth: Acne goes on its own😐

Fact: This is one of the foolest myth that people tell but the dermatologist all over the world, says it is best to treat acne in its early stages with the right product. This helps to prevent future breakouts.

Myth: All acne is of the same type

Fact: There are actually different types of acne and it is important to know each type of acne in order to treat this acne. The two main categories of acne are non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne.
Under non-inflammatory acne type, two different sub-categorized acne includes- Blackhead and Whitehead. On the other hand, inflammatory acne includes- Papules and Pustules. To explain this types of acne and their treatment options I will be discussing in my upcoming post. So stay tuned with Eureka Of Life.

Myth: Sex causes acne

Fact: This an old-age myth. This an idea dating back to the 17th century which was put to a dissuade young couple from having sex before marriage.😏 But this technique won't work for today's generation. There is no evidence to substantiate the claim.

Myth: Chocolates cause breakouts

Fact: Chocolates have no relation to your acne but do have a direct relation to blood glucose. Actually, there are a few shreds of evidence that specific foods actually do cause acne. Well designed clinical studies in the future will establish the real role of diet as a causative factor for acne. Currently, I will recommend everything in moderation.

Myth: Stress produces the acne

Fact: Not completely false, but also not completely true. Stress alone doesn't cause acne. While excess stress can aggravate the acne production, but stress alone is not the major causative factor for acne. The acne-flareups that result from stress is due to hormonal changes.

Myth: Smoking does not have any impact on acne

Fact: Another of the little-known fact is that cigarette smoking does have an impact on acne. Numerous studies have now established that smoking does have an impact on acne and can actually worsen acne's severity.

I hope you enjoyed reading this article.

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