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Stephen Hawking was born in thinkers family. He completed his graduation from Oxford University. He moved to Cambridge for his PhD. He submitted his thesis of "Properties of Expanding Universe" In 1963, at the age of 21, Stephen Hawking was diagnosed with the ALS(Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) a form of motor neuron disease. ALS is a disease which causes gradual deterioration of motor neurons. Hawking's disease which progressed than usual and due to which all muscles of his body slowly started to reduce it's mobility. He got bound to wheelchair and dependent for all his daily activity. He was expected not to live more than two years since there was no cure and treatment for ALS. But Hawking proved doctors wrong and survived more than half a century.
Hawking married on 14th July 1965 to Jane Wilde whom he met shortly just before the diagnosis of his motor neuron disease. The couple had three children and marriage broke down in 1991. Hawking moved on, after four years he got married to Elaine Mason, one of the nurses employed to give him round-the-clock care. The marriage lasted for 11 years, during which Cambridgeshire police investigated a series of alleged assaults on Hawking.
He received his doctorate degree in 1966. At the age of 37, Hawking became the Lucasian Professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, arguably Britain's most distinguished chair, and a post formerly occupied by Isaac Newton, a father of Quantum mechanics.
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In late 1970, Hawking's realized that black hole can only increase in size and never decrease in size. But Hawking went further. After a lot of studies, in 1974, Hawking drew quantum theory to determine the black holes are not totally silent but emit radiation, that concept is been named as Hawking radiation.
In 1985, Hawking suffered from a terrible chest infection, doctors asked his wife to withdraw his life support. But his wife refused for that and Hawking at Addenbrooke Hospital underwent a lifesaving tracheotomy operation. This operation saved his life but destroyed his voice. Afterward, he used a device to transform his voice by the movement of his cheek muscles(only muscle of right cheek working well). Since 1997 he used speech synthesiser to communicate in a computerised voice with an American accent. Then Intel developed sophisticated software which allowed Hawkins to check his mails, surf the Internet and write his lectures. He published all his books with the help of his speech device.
- CBE (Commander of Most Excellent Order of the British Empire) in 1982
- Companion of Honour (1989)
- Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
- Fundamental Physics Prize (2010)
- Copley Medal (2006)
- Wolf Foundation Prize (1988)
- A Brief History Of Time (1988)
- Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1994)
- The Nature Of Space And Time (1996)
- The Universe in A Nutshell (2001)
- The Future Of Spacetime (2002)
- On the Shoulders of Giants (2002)
- The Theory of Everything (2002)
- God Created Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs that Changed History (2005)
- The Grand Design (2010)
- The Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of (2011)
- The Origin of (Almost) Everything (2016)